Step-by-Step Guide to Remote OS Installation
One of the most challenging and costly functions performed by IT staff today is deploying a new operating system to client computers on a network. Remote OS Installation was created to ease deployment throughout an enterprise network by eliminating the need to physically attend to each client computer. This document outlines the steps necessary to install, configure, and use Remote Installation Services (RIS).
Remote Installation Services (RIS) ships as part of the Windows® 2000 Server operating system. This document outlines the steps necessary to install, configure, and use RIS.
RIS was designed to reduce the costs incurred by pre-installing or physically visiting each client computer to install the operating system (OS). By combining RIS with other Windows 2000 IntelliMirror™ management technologies features—User Data Management, Software Installation and Maintenance, and User Settings Management—companies benefit from better disaster recovery with easier OS and application management.
See Appendix A below to ensure that both your server and client hardware meet the remote installation hardware requirements.
The drive on the server where you choose to install RIS must be formatted with the NTFS file system. RIS requires a significant amount of disk space and cannot be installed on the same drive or partition on which Windows 2000 Server is installed. Ensure that the chosen drive contains enough free disk space for at least one full Windows 2000 Professional compact disc—a minimum of approximately 800 megabytes (MB)–1 gigabyte (GB).
RIS requires several other services that also ship as part of Windows 2000 Server. These services can be installed on individual servers, or all on a single server, depending on your network design:
To ensure a successful installation, you must install and configure the additional services described above in order for RIS to function. In addition, make sure that you have both the Windows 2000 Server and Professional CDs available.
Before beginning this step-by-step guide, you need to build the common infrastructure, which specifies a particular hardware and software configuration. The common infrastructure is covered in the Common Infrastructure step-by-step guide, “Part 1: Installing a Windows 2000 Server as a Domain Controller”. If you are not using the common infrastructure, you need to make the appropriate changes to this instruction set.
Although not required, we also recommend reading and performing the exercises available in the Step-by-Step Guide to Understanding the Group Policy Feature Set. It addresses how Group Policy works and can be applied in the context of remote installations.
Prerequisites for Client Installations
Ensure that the client computer’s network card has been set as the primary boot device within the system BIOS. When the client computer boots and is configured with the network card as the primary boot device, it requests a network service boot from the remote installation server on the network. Once contacted, the RIS server prompts users to press the F12 key to download the Client Installation wizard. Users should be instructed to press F12 only if prompted, and only if they need a new OS installation or access to maintenance and troubleshooting tools. Once the OS has been installed via RIS, the user can ignore the request to press F12 during future client computer reboots. If using the RIS boot floppy disk, simply insert the boot floppy into the drive and start the client computer. The computer boots from the floppy disk, and the user is requested to press F12 to initiate the network service boot. When the RIS boot floppy disk is used, the user must remove the boot floppy at some point after pressing F12 and before the text mode portion of setup completes.
Note : Compaq computer systems provide the ability to press the F12 key during power up on PC98 or Net PC-based systems. In this case, the user is required to press F12 on the Compaq Splash screen, and then press F12 again when prompted by the RIS server.
Installing the Windows 2000 Remote Installation Services
The following instructions help you install, configure, and use the Windows 2000 Remote Installation Services.
Install Remote Installation Services
Note: After the CD is entered, a dialog box asks if you want to upgrade to the operating system. Click No and exit this screen.
To set up Remote Installation Services
Note: The drive on which you choose to install RIS must be formatted with the NTFS file system. RIS requires a significant amount of disk space and cannot be installed on the same drive or partition on which Windows 2000 Server is installed. Ensure that the chosen drive contains enough free disk space for at least one full Windows 2000 Professional compact disc —a minimum of approximately 800 MB–1GB.
Wait while the wizard installs the service and settings you have selected. This takes several minutes. When it is finished, a screen appears as in Figure 1 below:
Now that RIS is successfully installed, you must authorize the RIS server within Active Directory. If you do not authorize the RIS server, it will fail to service client computers requesting a network service boot. The next section outlines these steps.
Authorizing RIS within the Active Directory
RIS allows you to control which RIS servers can service client computers on the network. For a RIS server to operate, it must first be authorized within Active Directory. If the RIS server is not authorized within Active Directory, client computers requesting service will not be able to contact the RIS server and will not be answered.
To authorize a RIS server within Active Directory, you must be logged on as an enterprise administrator or a domain administrator of the root domain. You can complete the following steps on any domain controller, member server of the domain, or a Windows 2000 Professional workstation that has installed the Administrator Tools Package containing the DHCP Server Management snap-in. This guide performs the authorization on a domain controller: specifically, the domain controller that would have been created by running Part I of the Common Infrastructure step-by-step guide.
At this point, your RIS server is authorized within Active Directory and is now able to respond to client computers requesting service.
Note: If you authorize the RIS server on a non-domain controller computer, follow these steps to install the Administrator Tools Package: Click Start, click Run, and type adminpak.msi on a Server system. From a Professional based system, execute adminpak.msi from the Windows 2000 Server CD.
Setting Required User Permissions
If users are allowed to use RIS to install their own client computers, the administrator must ensure that those users have been granted the correct permissions for creating machine accounts within the domain. The permissions granted using the steps below will allow users to create computer accounts anywhere in the domain.
You can now either use the default RIS settings and immediately begin servicing client computers, or you can make changes to the RIS settings first. In either case, review the section titled "Prerequisites for Client Installations" above before servicing the first client computer.
Installing Client Computers Using Remote Installation
This section describes the steps required to successfully install Windows 2000 Professional on a Net PC, a Managed PC (PC 98 compliant system), or a PC that contains a network card supported by the remote installation boot floppy. To ensure a successful client installation, complete all prerequisites listed at the beginning of this document.
After the installation is complete, the user is prompted to log on to the network with an existing user account, password, and logon domain.
At this point, you have successfully configured and installed a remote operating system using RIS. See below for additional information on configuration options.
Configuring Remote Installation Services
This section outlines the specific RIS configuration options that can be configured. If desired, these optional steps should be performed using the Active Directory Users and Computer snap-in on the RIS server.
Note: Although not covered in this guide, you can administer the majority of the RIS configuration settings from a Windows 2000 Professional client. To administer a RIS server from a Windows 2000 Professional client, install the Administrator Tools package AdminPak.msi that ships as part of the Windows 2000 Server CD. The Administrator Tools package can be deployed or installed from the <Windir>\System32 directory on the server.
You are presented with your Active Directory tree as in Figure 3 below:
There are two areas of administration concerning the configuration of the RIS server settings:
Locate your RIS server computer object within the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in. Depending on the type of server, domain controller, or member server of a domain, the server’s computer object can be located in the Domain Controller Active Directory container or another container specified by the administrator at install time.
The administrator can define the automatic computer naming policy that is used during OS installation to provide the computer with a unique name. The computer name is used to identify the client computer on the network, similar to the older NetBIOS name used in previous versions of the Windows NT® and Windows operating systems.
This tab also allows you to define a default Active Directory container for client computer account object creation. You can group clients within a specific directory service domain or organizational unit (OU). During OS installation, Windows 2000 setup queries these settings to ensure the client computer is configured according to what the administrator has specified. These are the options:
Note: If an end user is setting up the client computer, the user must have the appropriate rights to create the computer account within the domain or OU chosen. For more information on giving users computer account creation permissions, please see the RIS online Help.
Note: In order for all client computers using the RIS feature for OS installation to contain the same settings, all remote installation servers need to be configured in the exact same way. This release does not support replication of OS images or RIS configuration settings between RIS servers.
The Images tab is used for managing the client operating system images installed on a RIS server. Its options allow an administrator to add, remove, or modify the properties of an operating system image.
There are two types of images that can be displayed on the Images tab:
< Note: You cannot use the Add option on the Images tab to add an RIPrep image, nor can you use the Add option to associate additional unattended setup answer files to a RIPrep image.
If you replace the existing friendly description and help text with new text, all users of the client installation from that point forward see the new text descriptions. You can also use the Properties option to view specific image attributes, such as OS version, language, and the type of image (CD or RIPrep).
The Tools tab is available for independent software vendors (ISVs) or original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) that would like to use their pre-boot tools with RIS. ISVs or OEMs need to provide an external setup program that adds their respective tool to the \RemoteInstall directory tree. Once added, the tool shows up on the Tools tab and is available to administrators and users of the Client Installation wizard.
The Tools option also allows ISVs or OEMs to provide pre-OS installation maintenance and troubleshooting tools to administrators, IT staff, or users. This provides administrators with an easy way to update client computer systems, such as the system BIOS.
Client Installation Options
There are four installation options that you can choose to present to a user of the Client Installation wizard. These options are:
The installation options available to any given user are determined by the specific Remote Installation Services Group Policy settings. For example, you can choose to provide all members of the Help Desk Security group access to all of the installation options, yet restrict general network users to the Automaticsetupand Maintenance and troubleshootingoptions. This prevents user confusion and helps guide the user to the correct choices for OS installation. By default, users are given the right to automatic setup only.
The Automatic setup option is the default installation option enabled for all users of the Client Installation wizard. If this is the only installation option available to a user, when the user logs on within the Client Installation wizard, the automatic setup option is not displayed. Instead, the Client Installation wizard jumps directly to the OS images selection screen. If there is only one OS image offered, the user simply logs on within the Client Installation wizard and is asked to confirm the installation. If more than one OS image is available for installation, the user has a choice of which OS to install. Note that you can configure the RIS server to limit the OS images the user can see. For more information on restricting OS image access, see the section “Restricting OS Image Options” below.
By using an unattended installation setup answer file (*.sif), you can create several unattended OS installations that are associated with one CD-based OS image on the remote installation server. You can customize which items are installed, as well as how the specific OS options are configured during OS install.
For example, you can choose to create a specific OS unattended setup answer file (*.sif) that installs the TCP/IP protocol, sets the display resolution to 800 x 600, and sets a specific company or department name. You can provide a friendly description for this OS image that the user can relate to, such as Windows 2000 Professional for Sales Staff. The friendly description is configurable after the initial posting of the workstation OS image on the RIS server (see the preceding section on configuring options on the RIS server). When a user logs on, a list of OS installation images is displayed for the user to choose from.
When the user selects one of the operating system images, a message displays stating that an operating system is about to be installed on this computer, and that the operating system requires the local hard disk to be repartitioned and formatted, thus erasing all data that currently resides on the disk.
Note: An administrator can edit the “Caution.osc” screen using the Notepad.exe program to provide a friendly message regarding the repartition and format of the local hard disk.
The Custom setup option allows you to override the automatic computer name assignment, as well as the computer account creation mechanism. You are prompted to manually enter a computer name or the Active Directory location where the computer account should be created.
Note: The Custom setup option can also be used to pre-stage a client computer into the Active Directory before delivery of the PC to the end user. Windows 2000 Remote Installation Services do not support fully unattended installations on machines that contain ISA or non Plug and Play aware devices.
Restart a Previous Setup Attempt
This option provides the ability to restart a failed setup attempt. If you started to install the OS and for some reason lost your connection to the RIS server, you can reboot the client computer, press F12 when prompted for a network service boot, and choose the Restart a Previous Setup Attempt. This restarts the installation of the previous installation attempt without asking for the computer name or Active Directory location previously entered before the initial failure.
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
This option provides access to third-party ISV and or OEM Pre-OS maintenance and troubleshooting tools.
Restricting Client Installation Options
To restrict the client installation options for users of RIS within your organization, apply the appropriate Group Policy settings for the RIS servers on your network.
Each Choice Option allows for a specific setting, as follows:
Restricting OS Image Options
RIS provides the administrator flexibility in the amount of control users have in choosing the OS that is installed on their computer. The administrator can configure the RIS servers to guide users through a successful OS installation without requiring the user to select the correct OS image.
By setting explicit user or group security permissions on the unattended setup answer file (*.sif) for a given OS image, you can determine which OS options a user can see and install. You can choose to allow all users of RIS to choose from all of the OS images available on a given RIS server, or you can restrict the user to only a select few that are appropriate for that user or group of users.
Note : Selecting individual users for specific access can become an administrative burden. Instead group your users by security group and apply the security group to the \Templates directory for OS image access. In this way, if you add users to the security group, they already have access to the correct OS image.
Important Note Never remove the permissions assigned to the Administrators group for a .SIF file. Doing so will prevent the RIS components themselves from accessing the file and prevent proper client installations.
At this point, you are ready to service client computers with RIS. Ensure that all services are running, all configuration settings have been made, and that the client computers adhere to the minimum requirements as described above.
Remote Installation Preparation Wizard (RIPrep)
The Remote Installation Preparation wizard (RIPrep.exe) provides the ability to prepare an existing Windows 2000 Professional installation, including locally installed applications and specific configuration setting, and replicate that image to an available RIS server on the network. The RIPrep feature currently supports replication of a single disk single partition (C Drive only) with Windows 2000 Professional installation. This means that the OS and all of the applications that make up the standard installation must reside on the C: drive before running the wizard.
First use RIS to remotely install the base Windows 2000 Professional OS on a client computer. Next, install any desired applications on the client computer. Configure the installation to adhere to any company policies; for example, you might choose to define specific screen colors, set the background bitmap to a company-based logo, or set intranet proxy server settings within Internet Explorer. Once the workstation is configured and tested, run the Remote Installation Preparation wizard (RIPrep.exe) from the RIS server that will receive the RIPrep-based OS image.
The destination computer does not need to have the same hardware as the source computer used to create the image, with the exception that the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) drivers must be the same. For example, both computers must be ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)-based or both must be non ACPI-based). In many cases, workstation-class computers do not require unique HAL drivers. The RIPrep utility uses the new Plug and Play support that ships with Windows 2000 for detecting any differences between the source and the destination computer hardware during image installation time.
To run the Remote Installation Preparation wizard (RIPrep.exe)
The image preparation and replication process begins. The system is prepared and files are copied to the RIS server specified. Once the replication of the image completes, any remote boot enabled client computer can select the image for a local installation.
Remote Installation Boot Disk Option
The remote installation boot disk can be used with computers that do not contain a remote boot-enabled ROM on the network card. The boot disk is designed to simulate the PXE boot process for computers that lack a supported DHCP PXE-based remote boot ROM. The boot disk generator utility is called RBFG.EXE and is located within the \RemoteInstall\admin directory on every Remote Installation Server.
The RBFG.exe utility is also contained within the Administrator Tools package that ships with Windows 2000 Server. The Administrator Tools package can be deployed across your organization using either Systems Management Server 2.0 or using the new Software Management feature, which is part of the Group Policy infrastructure.
Creating a Remote Installation Boot Floppy
To create a Remote Installation Boot Floppy, run the RBFG.exe utility from the RIS server either on a client computer that is connected to the RIS server or a computer with the administrator tools package installed.
To see a list of network adapters supported, click Adapter List. (Note: the RBFG.exe utility does not allow you to add network adapters). To create a remote installation boot disk, insert a disk into the appropriate drive and then select Create Disk.
Remote Boot ROM PXE Architecture
Remote Installation Services uses DHCP for IP address assignment to clients. When a new DHCP- PXE-based remote boot client computer is powered on for the first time, the client requests an Internet Protocol (IP) address, and the IP address of an active boot server via the DHCP protocol. As part of the initial request, the client computer sends out its globally unique identifier (GUID or UUID), which is used to uniquely identify the client machine within the Active Directory, in the case of Windows 2000 Remote Installation Services.
From the RIS server, the client computer receives:
Once the client request is made, the first RIS server to respond will check Active Directory to see if this client has been pre-staged or not. RIS does this by checking in Active Directory for a computer account object that has the unique GUID/UUID.
The PXE process is used every time a remote boot ROM-enabled client requests a network service boot. Remote boot/installation server vendors implement their own process to download the first image.
The information presented in this guide has provided the technical details required to install, configure, and use Microsoft Remote Installation Services.
Remote Installation Services require several of the Windows 2000 Server technologies—Active Directory, DHCP server, and the DNS server services. The remote installation sever also requires that client computers contain either the new DHCP PXE-based remote boot capable ROMs or a network card supported by the remote installation boot floppy.
Appendix A: Remote Installation Server and Workstation Hardware Requirements
Server Hardware Requirements
See the Product Compatibility page to verify that your server meets the minimum requirements for Windows 2000 Server.
Note: You should dedicate an entire hard drive or partition specifically to the Remote Installation Services directory tree. (SCSI-based disk controller/disks are preferred.)
Client Hardware Requirements
See the Product Compatibility page to make sure that your workstation meets the minimum requirements for Windows 2000 Professional.
Best Practice: Always check with the manufacturer of your network adapter to get the latest version of the PXE ROM.
Network Cards supported by RIS Boot Floppy
3 Com Network Adapters
AMD Network Adapters
Compaq Network Adapters
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Network Adapters
Hewlett-Packard Network Adapters
Intel Corporation Network Adapters
SMC Network Adapters
Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions
How do I know I have the correct PXE ROM version?
When the NetPC or client computer ROM-boots, a PXE (LSA) ROM message appears on the screen. You can see which version of the PXE ROM code is displayed during the boot sequence of the client machine. Windows 2000 RIS supports .99c or greater PXE ROMs. You may be required to obtain a newer version of the PXE-based ROM code from your OEM if you are not successful with this existing ROM version.
How do I know if the client computer has received an IP Address and has contacted the Remote Installation Server?
When the client computer boots, the PXE Boot ROM begins to load and initialize. The following 4-step sequence occurs with most Net PC or PXE ROM-based computers (Note: the sequence may be different on your computer):
Step 1: The client computer displays the message > BootP. This message indicates the client is requesting an IP address from the DHCP server.
Troubleshooting: If the client does not get past the BootP message, it means the client is not receiving an IP address. Things to check are:
Step 2: When the client receives an IP address from the DHCP server, the message changes to > DHCP. This indicates the client successfully leased an IP address and is now waiting to contact the Remote Installation Server.
Troubleshooting: If the client does not get past the DHCP message, it means the client is not receiving a response from the remote installation server. Things to check are:
Is there a router between the client and the remote installation server that is not allowing the DHCP-based requests/responses through? When the RIS client and the RIS server are on separate subnets the router between the two systems must be configured to forward DHCP packets to the RIS server. This is because RIS clients discover a RIS server by using a DHCP broadcast message. Without DHCP forwarding set up on a router, the clients’ DHCP broadcasts will never reach the RIS server. This DHCP forwarding process is sometimes referred to as DHCP Proxy or IP Helper Address in router configuration manuals. Please refer to your router instructions for setting up DHCP forwarding on your specific router.
Step 3: The client changes to BINL or prompts the user to click the F12 key. This means that the client has contacted the RIS server and is waiting to TFTP the first image file—OSChooser. You may not see the BINL and TFTP message as on some machines as this sequence simply flashes by too quickly.
Troubleshooting: If the client machine does not get a response from the Remote Installation Server, the client times out and displays an error that it did not receive a file from either DHCP, BINL, or TFTP. In this case, the RIS Server did not answer the client computer.
Stop and restart the BINLSVC. From the Start menu, click Run, and type CMD. Enter these commands:
If the client machine does not receive an answer after attempting to stop and restart the service, then check the Remote installation Server Object properties to ensure the correct setting has been set—that is, verify that RIS is set to "Respond to client computers requesting service", and "Do not respond to unknown client computers". Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and click Event Viewer to check the Event log on the RIS server for any errors relating to DHCP, DNS, or RIS (BINLSVC).
Step 4: At this point, the client should have downloaded and displayed the Client Installation wizard application with a Welcome screen greeting the user.
Does RIS support remote installation of Windows 2000 Server CD-based or RIPrep OS images?
No. RIS does not support remotely installing Windows 2000 Server.
Does RIS support remotely installing an OS image (RIPrep or CD-based) on laptop computers?
Yes and no. RIS has been tested with laptop computers in docking stations that support the required PXE ROM code. The laptops must be located within the docking stations with the network cable plugged into the network adapter located in the docking station.
RIS does not support laptop computers that contain PC Card or PCMCIA cards that contain a PXE supported ROM.
Is the Pre-Boot portion of the PXE-based Remote Boot ROM Secure?
No. The entire ROM sequence and OS installation/replication is not secure with regard to packet type encryption, client/server spoofing, or wire sniffer based mechanisms. As such, use caution when using the RIS service on your corporate network. Ensure that you only allow authorized RIS servers on your network and that the number of administrators allowed to install and or configure RIS servers is controlled.
Can RIPrep-based OS images be replicated to alternate media such as DVDs, CDs, and/or Zip drives?
No. This is something that is being considered for the next major release of RIS.
Does the RIPrep feature of RIS support different hardware between the source computer used to create the RIPrep-based OS image and the destination computer that will install the image?
Yes. The hardware between the source PC and the destination PC can be different. The one exception to this is the Hardware Abstraction layer (HAL) driver used. For example, if the source PC is an Advanced Configuration Power Interface (ACPI)-based computer, it uses a specific ACPI HAL driver. If you attempt to install this RIPrep image on a non-ACPI-based or enabled computer, it will fail.
Does the RIPrep wizard support multiple disks and or multiple partitions on a given client computer?
No. The RIPrep utility only supports a single disk with a single partition (C:\ drive) in this release of RIS.
How does the RIPrep wizard deal with disks that differ in size between the source PC used to create the image and the destination PC that will receive it?
The destination PC’s disk size must be equal to or larger than the source disk used to create the image.
How do I replicate all of the OS images currently located on one of my RIS servers to other RIS servers on the network for consistency across all client installations?
Currently RIS does not provide a mechanism for replication of OS images from one RIS server to another. There are several mechanisms that can be employed to solve this problem. Take advantage of the replication features of the Microsoft Systems Management Server product, for example. This product provides for scheduled replication, compression, and slow link features. You can also employ third-party vendor solutions for OS image replication. Ensure that the replication mechanism supports maintaining the file attributes and security settings of the source images.
Can I have an RIS server and a third-party remote boot server on the network at the same time? If so, what are the implications?
Yes. You can have multiple vendor Remote Boot/Installation (RB/RI) servers on one physical network. It is important to understand that currently the remote boot PXE ROM code does not know the difference between vendors RB/RI servers. As such, when a remote boot-enabled client computer powers up and requests the IP address of a RB/RI server, all of the available servers respond to that client. Thus, the client has no way to ensure it is serviced by a specific RB/RI server.
RIS allows an administrator the ability to pre-stage client computers into the Active Directory and mandate which RIS server services that client. By configuring the RIS server to answer only known client computers (pre-staged), the administrator is assured that the correct RIS server services the client. Not all of the third-party RB/RI vendors have implemented the ability to ignore service requests, so you may need to segment off the specific vendors servers so that clients are not answered by these vendors’ RB/RI servers.
Can I remotely manage the RIS servers from Windows 2000 Professional workstations on my network.
Yes. If you are an administrator in the domain and you have installed the Administrator Tools MSI package, you can administer the majority of the RIS configuration settings. There are some items that you cannot manage. For example, you cannot remotely add additional OS images to RIS servers from Windows 2000 workstation computers.
Can I add additional network adapter cards to the RIS Boot Floppy?
No. The RBFG.exe utility is hard-coded with the supported network card adapters for this release of RIS. Microsoft will be adding additional network card adapters over time. Microsoft makes the updated RBFG.exe utility available through normal distribution channels such as the Web, Windows Update, and future service/feature pack updates.
Can I use the Active Directory object attributes to create a naming format for use with the RIS automatic computer-naming feature?
No. The existing attributes supported with the automatic computer-naming feature leverage the Active Directory. However, all of the Active Directory object attributes are not currently supported. This is something that is being investigated for a future release of RIS.
Where do I look on the client computer to find the GUID/UUID for pre-staging clients in the Active Directory for use with RIS?
The GUID/UUID for client computers that are PC98 or Net PC compliant can be found (in most cases) in the system BIOS. OEMs are encouraged to ship a floppy disk containing a comma-separated file or spreadsheet that contains a mapping of Serial # to GUID/UUID. This allows you to script pre-staging client computers within the Active Directory. OEMs are also encouraged to post the GUID/UUID on the outside of the computer case for easy identification and pre-staging of computer accounts. If the GUID is not found in the above-mentioned locations, you can sniff the network traffic of the client, locate the DHCP Discover packet, and within that field will be the 128-bit 32 byte GUID/UUID.
The example company, organization, products, people, and events depicted in this step-by-step guide are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, person, or event is intended or should be inferred.
This common infrastructure is designed for use on a private network. The fictitious company name and DNS name used in the common infrastructure are not registered for use on the Internet. Please do not use this name on a public network or Internet.
The Active Directory structure for this common infrastructure is designed to show how Windows 2000 features work and function with the Active Directory. It was not designed as a model for configuring an Active Directory for any organization—for such information see the Active Directory documentation.
This feature information was obtained from the Microsoft Windows 2000 website at http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000 and are linked from ActiveWin.com for your convenience and is subject to Microsoft's copyright. For the most accurate information please visit the official site.